Geodesic The Concept
As related to a cost effective mass housing solution.

 

Pure Water

Water Purification Systems


AquaNow

AquaNow http://www.aqua-now.com/


Pure Water Anywhere
The AquaNow Portable Water Purification System produces sterile drinking water from even the most unhygienic, contaminated and dirty water source. A series of filtration systems form the heart of the unit with U.V. lamps and OZONE employed in the sterilisation process. An output of between 3000 and 4000 litres per hour can be achieved, depending on water quality, using a push button control system. The unit is self-contained and can function with its own power source via generator. AquaNow is made in South Africa.

        
                                      AquaNow Unit on Optional Trailer Module







AquaNow Filtration System


A winner of the SABS Design Institute 2001 Prototype Awards! See www.sabs.co.za/design

- Advanced, self-contained, purification technology
- UV and ozone sterilization ensures uncontaminated water output - absolutely pure!
- Special process boosts mineral content of water significantly - healthy!
- 1-button operation, tamper-proof cabinet
- Self-monitoring with failure detection - avoids operational damage due to misuse
- Self-powered (petrol or diesel generator) or land power - at the switch of a key
- Output water tested and approved by sabs (sa bureau of standards) - report available

- Water input via high capacity submersible pump or direct from land source into inlet
- Input from any water source (river, well, sewerage, contaminated water...) Except seawater
- High throughput rate (3000~4000 litres / hour) depending on input water source
- Water can be output to an optional sachet-maker, enabling on-site bagging/bottling
- Water meter to regulate and monitor output

- Low maintenance cycle (change proprietary filters and service pumps at 1.2m litres)
- Ozone generator is maintenance-free
- UV sterilization unit lamps replaced every 8000 hours
- Standards-based components readily available worldwide
- Generator service cycle as per manufacturer's manual - typically every 300 hours
- Very low running cost


Aqua Sun

http://www.aqua-sun-intl.com/products/pwp-c.htm

With the Aqua Sun Water Purification Systems, you can go anywhere in the World and produce potable drinking water from almost any fresh water source, such as a creek, stream, pond, well, or lake. These systems are completely stand alone units that can be placed anywhere existing water purification or electrical power is not available.

For these systems to be remote, stand alone water purification systems, they need the ability to adapt to any power source anywhere in the World. The Aqua Sun Systems can operate from existing 12 Volt DC systems, such as automobile batteries, or generators, or from an attached Photovoltaic, Solar Electrical Panel.

The Photovoltaic, Solar Panels allow the systems to produce and store their own electrical power which makes them a truly stand alone, self-contained unit, that can be transported anywhere in the World.

The Solar Powered Water Purification Systems come in a variety of different styles and sizes, portable or stationary. Clean, safe drinking water can be produced at rates of 1 gallon per minute up to 15,000 gallons per day.

Solar / Battery or 12-Volt DC Powered
Water Purification System for Remote Applications

Aqua Sun International manufactures innovative self contained, portable, water purification systems. Our systems provide clean, safe drinking water to remote areas where water purification is unattainable or impractical

Their portable water purifier can purify water from most fresh water sources like puddles, lakes, rivers, and streams. Since this purifier can make use of solar energy and 12 volt power it can be operated in the field, or from a vehicle making it truly portable. Purifying 60 gals/hour on 12 volt vehicle power and about 100 gals/day on the solar charged batteries. Providing drinking water for natural disasters, emergencies, expeditions, and camping.

The same filtering and Ultra Violet Light purification technology found in the smaller purifiers is also scalable into larger systems. These systems can purify up to 1000 gals/day of drinking water and can be powered by variety of electrical sources such as generators, solar energy, or conventional power sources. These purifiers provide portable drinking water purification from sources like ponds, creeks or lakes, for large situations like floods, earthquakes and hurricanes.

Stationary purifiers, powered by a vehicle's 12 volt power source, are mounted into vehicles such as RVs, trailers, boats, house boats, and industrial vehicles like fire trucks. For onboard drinking water. There is the added plus that a storage tank is not necessary. For example, house boaters, can take the water straight from the lake, there is no need to store it.

Aqua Sun manufactures the SWP - C3, Stationary Solar Powered / 12-volt Water Purification Systems for Remote Applications. This system has the capabilities of producing Cleaner and Safer Drinking Water from most any creek, stream, pond, well, lake, or most any fresh water source other than salt water at a water purification production volume rate of 11 liters / 3 gallons per minute and up to 2,220 liters / 600 gallons per day. This Solar Powered / 12-volt Water Purification System does not require any outside electrical power to operate. This dual voltage system when operating under the solar / battery system, will produce 2,220 liters / 600 gallons of Cleaner and Safer Drinking Water. The Solar Panel / Battery system requires approximately 6 hours of sunlight per day for recharging. When operating under the 12-volt, 20 ft long extension cord with battery clips the system will produce 11 liters / 3 gallons per minute for how ever long the electrical power source is maintained. Aqua Sun manufactures the SWP - C3, Stationary Solar Powered / 12-volt Water Purification Systems for Remote Applications. This system has the capabilities of producing Cleaner and Safer Drinking Water from most any creek, stream, pond, well, lake, or most any fresh water source other than salt water at a water purification production volume rate of 11 liters / 3 gallons per minute and up to 2,220 liters / 600 gallons per day. This Solar Powered / 12-volt Water Purification System does not require any outside electrical power to operate. This dual voltage system when operating under the solar / battery system, will produce 2,220 liters / 600 gallons of Cleaner and Safer Drinking Water. The Solar Panel / Battery system requires approximately 6 hours of sunlight per day for recharging. When operating under the 12-volt, 20 ft long extension cord with battery clips the system will produce 11 liters / 3 gallons per minute for how ever long the electrical power source is maintained.
These Systems are ideal for Remote Facilities in Small Towns and Villages of the World where water purification and electrical power are impractical or unattainable. These Stationary Wall Mount, Completely Self Contained, Solar / Battery or 12-volt Powered Water Purification Systems pull the water from a water source and push it through a Sediment Filter. The water is then pumped / pushed thorough a 0.5 micron Carbon Block Polishing Filter that has the capabilities of removing Giardia Lamblia, Cyst, Pesticides, Cryptosporidium, certain VOC's and THM's, Bad Tastes, Odors, Color, Smell, Chlorine and Chlorine by-products and many other Harmful Chemical Contaminants down to a 0.5 Micron. This Polished Filtered Water is then channeled past an Ultraviolet Light Disinfecting Process that kills the Bacteria, Viruses, Typhoid Fever, Dysentery, Infectious Jaundice, Hepatitis and Influenza Virus, E-coli, Enteric Fever and many other unwanted Microorganisms to a 99.9 % Purity.
Microorganisms to a 99.9 % Purity.
The Life Expectancy of the Carbon Block Filter with clean incoming water, 45,000 gallons.
The Ultraviolet Light under normal usage has a life expediency of 12 to 18 months.
The Water Purification System is 30" wide x 31" tall x 8" deep and has a weight of 20 lbs.
The Solar Panel can be placed on the roof; wall of a facility or most any convenient sun lit location. The solar panels dimensions are is 24" wide x 33" high x 3" deep.
All Water Contact Components carry a NSF Approval Rating and the UV Light carries a Certificate of Analysis and a Member of the Water Quality Association as well as the Filter Components.
Aqua Sun is a Member of the American Solar Energy Society
Cleaner and Safer Drinking Water


Small Villages and Towns Program

Aqua Sun manufactures a wide range of Portable, and Stationary Solar Powered Water Purification Systems that have the capabilities of producing up to 15 gallons / 55 liters per minute and 10,000 gallons / 37,000 liters or more per day of cleaner, and safer drinking water from most any creek, stream, pond, well, lake or most any water source other than salt water.

These systems are ideal for Remote, Small Villages and Towns of the World where water purification and electrical power are unattainable or impracticable. These systems come Solar Photovolatic Electrically Powered for areas without electrical power, or they can adapt to the wide range of different electrical powered voltages around the World. They come in a variety of different types of Portable Systems that are light enough in weight to be manually carried to almost any situation or designed to be trailer mounted and transported behind a vehicle. Our Stationary Units can be a wall mount system with the solar panels installed in most any convenient location.

All of Aqua Sun Systems use a Filtration Process that has the capabilities of removing Giardia Lamblia, Cyst, Pesticides, certain VOC's, THM's, BadTaste, Odors, Color and many other Harmful Chemical Contaminants down to a 0.5 Micron. The Polished Filtered Water is then channeled past an Ultraviolet Light Disinfecting Process that kills the Bacteria, Virus, Typhoid Fever, Dysentery, Cholera, Infectious Jaundice, Hepatitis, Influenza Virus, E-Coli, Enteric Fever and many other unwanted
Microorganisms to 99.9% Purity.

Aqua Sun combines High Capacity Filtration and Ultraviolet Disinfecting into 2 "TWO" different sized systems whose only difference is Gallons / Liters per Minute and Filter Life Expectancy
The Larger UVBB Systems have the capabilities of Water Purification flow rates up to 15 gallons / 55 liters per minute with a 0.5 Micron Carbon Block filter life expectancy of up to 150.000 gallons / 555.000 liters.

The Smaller UV20 Systems have the capabilities of water purification flow rates up to 8 gallons / 29.6 liters per minute with a 0.5 Micron Carbon Block Filtration filter life expectancy up to 45,000 gallons / 166.50 liters

These 2 different sized Water Purification Systems come in 4 "four" Filter Housings Models
1 "One" Filter Housing, Ultraviolet Lamp only. ( Center )
2 "Two" Filter Housings, 0.5 Micron Carbon Block Filter & UV. ( Left Side )
3 "Three" Filter Housings, Sediment Filter, Carbon Block Filter & UV. ( Right Side )
4 "Four" Filter Housings, Washable Reusable Filter, Sediment, Carbon Block & UV. ( Rear )
All Water Contact Components carry a NSF Approval Rating and the Ultraviolet Light carries a Certificate of Analysis and is a Member of the Water Quality Association as well as the Filtration Components


Solar Desalination


The solar evacuated tube array for a MSF system


The salt pond technology

SUN is marketing a 30,000-gallon-per-day Solar Multistage Flash (MSF) Desalination System for remote eco-resort developments. The solar desalination system uses SUN's high-temperature solar evacuated tubes and/or a solar salt pond technology developed by Dr. Safwat Moustafa, SUN's chairman.

http://www.sunutility.com/index.htm



Solar Water Distillation

How rain is made. Evaporation, Condensation, and Collection.

How stills work.Evaporation, Condensation, and Collection.

Making distilled water is the same process as making your own rain

The water that is made in these stills is a better quality than bottled water because it is purified using the distillation process. It is some of the cleanest, most pure water you can get on the planet. And because the water is slowly evaporated, instead of rapidly boiled, the water tastes sweeter due to the natural process (vs. "forced distillation" done by boiling the water).
Contaminants such as salts, chlorine taste and odor, heavy metals, bacteria (e.g. coliform/cholera), micro-organisms (e.g. E-coli, giardia, chryptosporidium), sediments, sand, rust, fluoride, etc. are all completely removed.

Solar water distillation is one of the simplest and most effective methods of purifying water. Solar water distillation replicates the way nature purifies water. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, purified water vapor rises, condensing on the glass surface for collection. This process removes impurities such as salts and heavy metals, as well as destroying microbiological organisms. The end result is water cleaner than the purest rainwater. Only solar energy is required for the still to operate. There are no moving parts to wear out.
The number of systems designed to filter or purify water have increased dramatically in recent years. As water supplies have increased in salinity, have been contaminated or have experienced periods of contamination, people have lost trust in their drinking water supply. Water filtration systems can be as simple as a filter for taste and odor to complex systems to remove impurities and toxins. Typically the more complex water treatment systems can remove more impurities but they are also the most expensive to operate and the SolAqua still is a passive solar distiller. http://www.solaqua.com/




The basic principles of solar water distillation are simple yet effective, as distillation replicates the way nature purifies water. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, purified water vapor rises, condensing on the glass surface for collection. This process removes impurities such as salts and heavy metals, as well as destroying microbiological organisms. The end result is water cleaner than the purest rainwater. The SolAqua still is a passive solar distiller that only needs sunshine to operate. There are no moving parts to wear out.


The distilled water from a SolAqua still does not acquire the "flat" taste of commercially distilled water since the water is not boiled (which lowers pH). Solar stills use natural evaporation and condensation, which is the rainwater process. This allows for natural pH buffering that produces excellent taste as compared to steam distillation. Solar stills can easily provide enough water for family drinking and cooking needs.

Solar distillers can be used to effectively remove many impurities ranging from salts to microorganisms and are even used to make drinking water from seawater. SolAqua stills have been well received by many users, both rural and urban, from around the globe. SolAqua solar distillers can be successfully used anywhere the sun shines.

The SolAqua solar stills are simple and have no moving parts. They are made of quality materials designed to stand-up to the harsh conditions produced by water and sunlight. Operation is simple: water should be added (either manually or automatically) once a day through the stills supply fill port. Excess water will drain out of the overflow port and this will keep salts from building up in the basin. Purified drinking water is collected from the output collection port.

Supply Fill Port:Water should be added to the still via this port. Water can be added either manually or automatically. Normally water is added once a day (in the summer it's normally best to fill in the late evening and in the winter in the early morning). Care should be taken to add the water at a slow enough flow rate to prevent splashing onto the interior of the still glazing or overflowing into the collection trough.


Overflow Port:Once the still basin has filled, excess water will flow out of this port. SolAqua recommends three times daily distilled water production to be allowed to overflow from the still on a daily basis to prevent salt build-up in the basin (e.g., if your still produced 2 gallons of product water then you should add 6 gallons of fresh feedwater through the fill port). If flushed on a daily basis, the overflow water can be used for other uses as appropriate for your feedwater (e.g., landscape watering).

Distilled Output Collection Port:Purified drinking water is collected from this port, typically with a glass collection container. Stills that are mounted on the roof can have the distillate output piped directly to an interior collection container. For a newly installed still, allow the collection trough to be self-cleaned by producing water for a couple of days before using the distillate output.

Solar Still Background
Solar distillation is a tried and true technology. The first known use of stills dates back to 1551 when it was used by Arab alchemists. Other scientists and naturalists used stills over the coming centuries including Della Porta (1589), Lavoisier (1862), and Mauchot (1869).

The first "conventional" solar still plant was built in 1872 by the Swedish engineer Charles Wilson in the mining community of Las Salinas in what is now northern Chile (Region II). This still was a large basin-type still used for supplying fresh water using brackish feedwater to a nitrate mining community. The plant used wooden bays which had blackened bottoms using logwood dye and alum. The total area of the distillation plant was 4,700 square meters. On a typical summer day this plant produced 4.9 kg of distilled water per square meter of still surface, or more than 23,000 liters per day. This first stills plant was in operation for 40 years!

Over the past century, literally hundreds of solar still plants and thousands of individual stills have been built around the world. SolAqua stills have built upon years of still research and development, use NSF and FDA approved materials, and are the state of the art for commercial solar still distillation.

Still Operation
A solar still operates on the same principle as rainwater: evaporation and condensation. The water from the oceans evaporates, only to cool, condense, and return to earth as rain. When the water evaporates, it removes only pure water and leaves all contaminants behind. Solar stills mimic this natural process.
A SolAqua single basin solar still has a top cover made of glass, with an interior surface made of a waterproof membrane. This interior surface uses a blackened material to improve absorption of the sun's rays. Water to be cleaned is poured into the still to partially fill the basin. The glass cover allows the solar radiation (short-wave) to pass into the still, which is mostly absorbed by the blackened base. The water begins to heat up and the moisture content of the air trapped between the water surface and the glass cover increases. The base also radiates energy in the infra-red region (long wavelength) which is reflected back into the still by the glass cover, trapping the solar energy inside the still (the "greenhouse" effect). The heated water vapor evaporates from the basin and condenses on the inside of the glass cover. In this process the salts and microbes that were in the original water are left behind. The condensed water trickles down the inclined glass cover to an interior collection trough and is delivered to a storage bottle.
The still is filled each morning or evening, and the total water production for the day is collected at that time. The still will continue to produce distillate after sundown until the water temperature cools down. Feedwater should be added each day that roughly exceeds the distillate production to provide proper flushing of the basin water and to clean out excess salts left behind during the evaporation process.

The intensity of solar energy falling on the still is the single most important parameter affecting production. The daily distilled water output (M e in kg/m2 day) is the amount of energy utilized in vaporizing water in the still (Q e in J/ m2 day) over the latent heat of vaporization of water (L in J/kg). Solar still efficiency (n) is the amount of energy utilized in vaporizing water in the still over the amount of incident solar energy on the still (Q t in J/m2 day). These can be expressed as:

Solar still Production: M e = Q e / L
Solar Still Efficiency: n = Q e / Q t

Typical efficiencies for single basin solar stills approach 60 percent. General operation is very simple and requires facing the still towards solar noon, putting water in the still every morning to fill and flush the basin, and recovering distillate from the collection reservoir (e.g., glass bottles). Stills are modular and for greater water production requirements, several stills can be connected together in series and parallel as desired.

As water evaporates from the solar still basin, salts and other contaminants are left behind. Over time, these salts can build to the point of saturation if the still is not properly maintained and flushed on a regular basis. Properly operating a still requires adding about three times as much make-up water as the distillate water produced each day (e.g., if the still produced 3 gallons of water, 9 gallons of make-up water should be added, of which 6 gallons leaves the still as excess). The excess water flushes the still basin through the overflow to prevent salt buildup. If this is done on a daily basis, the flushed water is of approximately the same quality as the original feedwater that was added to the still. The excess water is of suitable quality that it can be used to water landscaping, wash pots and pans, etc. No sediments or sludge will buildup if the still is properly operated and flushed daily at about three times daily distillate production.

Still Water Production
Solar still production is a function of solar energy (insolation) and ambient temperature. Production rates in the Southwest U.S. can average about 2 liters per day in the winter to over 6 liters per day during the summer, per square meter.

Distillation Purification Capabilities
Solar stills have proven to be highly effective in cleaning up water supplies to provide safe drinking water. The effectiveness of distillation for producing safe drinking water is well established and recognized. Most commercial stills and water purification systems require electrical or other fossil-fueled power sources. Solar distillation technology produces the same safe quality drinking water as other distillation technologies; only the energy source is different (solar) for producing clean drinking water.
Distillation is the only stand alone point-of-use (POU) technology with NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) international certification for arsenic removal, under Standard 62. Solar distillation removes all salts as well as biological contaminants (e.g.,cryptosporidium, e. coli, etc.). There are many studies in the literature, such as tests conducted on solar stills at New Mexico State University and Sandia National Laboratories, which clearly verify that solar stills are highly effective in eliminating microbial contamination and salts.

If you have any questions about what a solar still can effectively clean, please contact SolAqua for additional information


http://www.sunde.de/absorb.htm


Salt water, brackish water or sewage are pumped to the systems by means of a photovoltaic or wind-driven pump. The sun shines on the solar glass, water evaporates and pure drinking water condenses. It can be collected and used immediately.
In contrast to other water preparation methods (e.g. reverse osmosis), you don't need pretreatment of the raw water, nor aftertreatment for the drinking water. The plant is easy to handle, works silent, does not cause any emissions and needs just the sun as energy supply. the reliable system does not contain any moving parts - that is why there will be no expenses for spare parts, despite daily use.
The systems consists of modules, which are easy to connect. The number of these modules depends on your local conditions (e.g. your rooftop) and your demand. A plant with dimensions of 25 x 10 m produces over 2,000 litres of drinking water daily. If you correlate your investment to 15 years of operation, you gain pure drinking water for less than EURO 0.0025 per litre (prices of 1999).

Interesting Links
Targeting Drinking Water in Border Colonias: A Solar Still Development

Improving Manufacturability and Reliability of Solar Water Distillers

Solar Humidification

MAKE A FREE SOLAR STILL!
(good for rural survival, roadside breakdowns, kids' science projects, fun!)

You can make a FREE solar still anytime or anywhere, even if you are stuck out in the hot, dry desert, as long as you have a clean 5'X5' (or comparable sized) piece of clear plastic with you. All you have to do is dig a conical hole in the ground and put a cup in the middle of the hole. Then you open up the plastic and stretch it out over the hole so that it covers the hole all the way (HINT: make sure your hole is not bigger than your plastic). You can put sand or rocks over the edges of the plastic to hold it down so it doesn't blow away. Then put a pebble in the center of the plastic to make the plastic dip down in the center, right over the cup that is underneath. The sun will come through the plastic, heat up the air and the moisture that is in the earth, evaporate it and make the moisture condense on the plastic, which will then run down towards the pebble and drop into the cup. More water can also be made if vegetation or pieces of cactus are cut up and thrown into the hole before the plastic is put on. This gives extra moisture inside the hole so it can be "distilled" faster. In just a few hours you'll have some hot water to make tea, or let it cool down to drink it as pure water. Be careful not to burn yourself when you try this. Have fun!


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